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Chondroitin Fragments Are Odorants that Trigger Fear Behavior in Fish

renchunxiao 添加于 2012/2/29 16:00:53  886次阅读 | 0次推荐 | 0个评论

The ability to detect and avoid predators is essential to survival. Various animals, from sea urchins to damselfly larvae, use injury of conspecifics to infer the presence of predators [1,2,3,4,5,6,7]. In many fish [1,8,9], skin damage causes the release of chemicals that elicit escape and fear in members of the shoal. The chemical nature of the alarm substance (Schreckstoff in German) [1], the neural circuits mediating the complex response, and the evolutionary origins of a signal with little obvious benefit to the sender, are unresolved. To address these questions, we use biochemical fractionation to molecularly characterize Schreckstoff. Although hypoxanthine-3 N-oxide has been proposed to be the alarm substance [10,11], it has not been reliably detected in the skin [12] and there may be other active components [13,14]. We show that the alarm substance is a mixture that includes the glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chondroitin. Purified chondroitins trigger fear responses. Like skin extract, chondroitins activate the mediodorsal posterior olfactory bulb, a region innervated by crypt neurons [15] that has a unique projection to the habenula [16]. These findings establish GAGs as a new class of odorants in fish, which trigger alarm behavior possibly via a specialized circuit.

作 者:Ajay S. Mathuru, Caroline Kibat, Wei Fun Cheong, Guanghou Shui, Markus R. Wenk, Rainer W. Friedrich, Suresh Jesuthasan
期刊名称: current biology
期卷页: 第卷 第期 页
学科领域:生命科学 » 动物学 » 动物生理及行为学
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原文链接:http://www.cell.com/current-biology/abstract/S0960-9822(12)00091-7
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