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Flowers of Cypripedium fargesii (Orchidaceae) fool flat-footed flies (Platypezidae) by faking fungus-infected foliage

dankan 添加于 2011/4/22 16:49:23  1755次阅读 | 0次推荐 | 0个评论

Charles Darwin was fascinated by the orchid–pollinator interactions, but he did not realize that many orchid species are pollinatedby deceit. Cypripedium, a model lineage of nonrewarding orchid flowers, is pollinated primarily by bees. Here we present both an example of floralmimesis of fungus-infected foliage in orchids and an example of flat-footed flies (Agathomyia sp.; Platypezidae) as pollen vectors for angiosperms. Cypripedium fargesii is a nectarless, terrestrial, endangered orchid from southwestern China that requires cross-pollination to produce the maximumnumber of viable embryos. All insects caught entering or leaving the labellum sac were Agathomyia sp. carrying conidia of Cladosporium sp. on their mouthparts and legs, suggesting mycophagy. Blackish hairy spots on the upper surface of foliage may imitateblack mold spots, serving as short-term visual lures. Some odor molecules also associated with Cladosporium cultures were isolated in the floral scent. Mimesis of fungus-infected foliage probably represents an overlooked but importantoption in angiosperm diversification, because there are three to five more Cypripedium spp. in southwestern China with the same mode of floral presentation and black-spotted hairy leaves.

作 者:Ren, Zong-Xin; Li, De-Zhu; Bernhardt, Peter; Wang, Hong
期刊名称: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
期卷页: 第卷 第期 ~页
学科领域:生命科学 » 生态学 »
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原文链接:http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2011/04/12/1103384108
DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1103384108
ISBN: 0027-8424
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相关报道: http://paper.sciencenet.cn/htmlpaper/201142216512122616315.shtm
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